In this graphic you can see the different domains of phonetics which are articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics
The Articulatory Domain
The Acoustic Domain
The Speech Wave-Form
Basic Speech Signal Parameters
The Time Domain: the Speech Wave-Form
The Frequency Domain: simple & complex signals
Fourier Analysis: the Spectrum
The Auditory Domain
( source: http://wwwhomes.uni-bielefeld.de/~gibbon/Classes/Classes2006WS/IntroductionToLinguistics/07-IntroPhoneticsAcousticAuditory.pdf)
What Praat can do :
( source: http://wwwhomes.uni-bielefeld.de/~gibbon/Classes/Classes2006WS/IntroductionToLinguistics/07-IntroPhoneticsAcousticAuditory.pdf )
Acoustic phonetics requires special equipment
Today's lecture was about acoustic and auditory phonetics.
Acoustic phonetics is the transmission of speech sounds. What you hear is not the actual sound that was produced because there are many filters, as the pharyngeal filter, the nasal and the oral filter.
You can make speech sounds visible by using praat software. In today's lecture Prof. Gibbon explained how to use this software and its advantages.
In the second half of today's lecture we talked about the perception of speech sounds and therefore we mainly spoke about the different parts and the function of the ear.
In the ear, the outer ear works as a kind of microphone, the middle ear as a amplifier and the inner ear as a spectral transform.
I think Praat is a quite interesting software, but only when you can use it yourself ( which is quite impossible to organise for so many students in one "Hörsaal"). It was quite easy to use when I tried it at home especially because I already have some experiences with "Audacity".
Articulatory phonetics tasks
Take a look at the model on the Interactive Sagittal Section
practice with it to get used to the different combinatons of active and passive articulators
pronounce all the sounds you form with the website, observing the movements of your articulatory organs
t the lips are spread, the tounge is pressed against the alveolar
f the lower lip is pressed agains the upper teeth, tounge is not used
v same position as f but voiced
Download the Praat software on to your computer:
read an audio file
experiment with the software
consult the help files
Take a look at models of the ear: summarise the functions of the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear
( my version of the word "tiger") you can see that vowels are louder as consonants.
pinna, ear canal, surface of ear drum
The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear.
The outer ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane).
In humans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear.
The complicated design of the human outer ear does help capture sound, but the most important functional aspect of the human outer ear is the ear canal itself. Unless the canal is open, hearing will be dampened. Ear wax (medical name - cerumen) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. This outer ear canal skin is applied to cartilage; the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull. Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. The outer ear ends at the most superficial layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is commonly called the ear drum.
The pinna helps direct sound through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). In some animals with mobile pinnae (like the horse), each pinna can be aimed independently to better receive the sound. For these animals, the pinnae help localize the direction of the sound source. Human beings localize sound within the central nervous system, by comparing loudness from each ear in brain circuits that are connected to both ears.
( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear )