Introduction to Linguistics
  Glossary P- Z

Paradigmatic Relations

Relations of “choice”

  • classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs.

  • similarity and difference of

  • internal structure: simple vs. complex stems

  • external structure: functions in different word orders / positions

  • meaning: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, ...

  • appearance: shared and different distinctive features

21. 12. 2006


Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning 'sound, voice') is the study of sounds and the human voice. It is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones) as well as those of non-speech sounds, and their production, audition and perception, as opposed to phonology, which is the study of sound systems and abstract sound units (such as phonemes and distinctive features). Phonetics deals with the sounds themselves rather than the contexts in which they are used in languages. ( 20.12.2006)

14. 12. 2006


affixes that attach before the root

16. 11. 2006


A portfolio is a collection of works to be used as a learner's diary and/ or a glossary. It is important to assess your learning outcome and to prepare for examinations.

It should contain a table of content, tasks and reports that you produce during the lecture or at home, brief summaries of the lectures and a glossary with all important technical terms.


Representation of Pronunciation

For general pronunciation representation in the lexicon:

  • phonemic transcription

  • just enough phonetic detail to distinguish words

For detailed representation of speech pronunciation:

  • phonetic transcription based on

  • articulatory phonetics (about speech production)

07. 12. 2006


carries the meaning

  • unbelievable: believe

16. 11. 2006

Semiotic relations

  • realisation: the visual appearance or acoustic representation of signs (other senses may also be involved).

  • interpretation: the assignment of meaning to a sign.

11.01. 2007

Sign Hierarchy

  • Each sign has a structure ( internal/ external) and semiotic relations ( function and realisation)

11.01. 2007

Simple word

  • consists of only one morpheme.

  • Example: boy, man, radio, book, paper, magnet, house, compute

16. 11. 2006


affixes that attach after the root

16. 11. 2006

Syntagmatic Relation

linguistic “glue”: combinatory relations: create larger signs (& their realisations & interpretations) from smaller signs (& their realisations & interpretations)



    Consonants and Vowels are glued together as core and periphery of syllables.


  • lexical morphemes & affixes are glued together into derived stems.

  • stems are glued together into compound stems.

  • stems and inflections are glued together into words.


  • nouns and verbs are glued together as the subjects and predicates of sentences.

21. 12. 2006


In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. ( , 22.12.06)

21. 12. 2006


    A text is a document, a novel as well as an advertisement, which consists of sentences or even only' s main properties are

    - appearance (the media (novel, newspaper, ...)

    - meaning (semantics, pragmatics)

- structure (formulation)

19. 10. 2006


Verner's Law

Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s and *x, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became respectively *b, *d, *z and *g.

26. 10. 2006


A website is an online hypertext document with embedded document objects as well as linked document objects and therefore a text.

19. 10. 2006

Zero derivation

words can change wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (=by adding an empty morpheme)

23. 11. 2006

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