Introduction to Linguistics
  23.11.06 Morphology (2)
 
 

23. 11. 2006 Words and their parts - Morphology (2) held by Dr. Thorsten Trippel



Revision

antidisestablishmentarianism ( attempt to separate the state from the curch)

  • anti + disestablishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • dis + establishmentarianism ( prefix + root)

  • establishment + arianism (root + bound morpheme)

  • establish + ment ( free morpheme + bound morpheme)





Compounds: At least two roots

  • noun combine with

  • noun (fire engine)

  • adjective ( greenhouse)

  • verbs ( swimming suit)



head: noun

  • wall paper

  • table cloth

  • ring finger

  • patch work

  • police officer

  • watermelon

  • birthday

  • raindrop



head: verb

  • highlight

  • undercut

  • offset

  • upflow



head: adjective

  • headstrong

  • squeaky clean

  • snow white





Derivation

  • process of adding a morpheme to a base by which the meaning and/or wordclass of the base changes


Example derivations

Base

Affix

Result

Write verb

- er

Writer noun

Write verb

- ing

Writing noun

Write verb

re-

Rewrite verb

Treat verb

-ment

Treatment noun

Treat verb

Mis-

Mistreat verb

Treat verb

Mis- , -ment

Mistreatment noun





Consequences of derivation

  • Suffixes change the wordclass of the base, prefixes the meaning

  • Derived words are productive, i.e. they can be used for further word formation, either serving as a base in derivation, or they can be inflected.

  • The list of derivational affixes is fixed (it is a closed class).





Some English suffixes

Suffix

Wordclass (base)

Derived wordclass

- able

Verb

Adjective

-ant

Verb

Noun

-(a)tion

Verb

Noun

-er

Verb

Noun

-less

Noun

Adjective

-ly

Adjective

Adverb

-ness

Adjective

Noun

-ment

Verb

Noun

-ous

Noun

Adjective





Some English prefixes

  • anti

  • de

  • dis

  • ex

  • in

  • mis

  • re

  • un-



Zero Derivation

  • special phenomenon in English

  • words can change wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (=by adding an empty morpheme)


Base

Derived

Xerox

To xerox

Thread

To thread

House

To house





Task

  • select of the following parts of speech 3 each:

  • verbs : play, work, write

  • nouns: bird, wall, table

  • adjectives: small, red, long

     

  • derive as many words as possible from them!ab

  • Playground, player, played, playing, playable,...

  • worker, worked, working, workable,..

  • writer, writing, rewrite, writable,...

  • ladybird, birdish,...

  • wallpaper, chinese wall,...

  • table cloth, coffetable, tablewater,...

  • smaller,...

  • redish, redly,...

  • longous, longly, longer,...



Learner's diary

First of all we revised almost completely last week's lecture. We once again said that there is no special definition of the word "word" but everybody knows what it is. Further we spoke about the difference of simple and complex words. We also revised the difference between free and bound morphemes and allomorphs. Moreover we discussed the structure of words and the different types of word formation.

As last lecture only dealt with compounding in terms of word formation, today we spoke about derivation.

We looked at a definition of derivation, at some examples and described the consequences of derivation. As derivation can either add a prefix, a suffix or nothing (zero derivation) to a root, we looked at different prefixes and affixes and spoke about zero derivation, which is a special phenomenon in English.

The first big part of the lecture was revision from last lexture which was quite good of course because it helps you to remember things, but therefore that were not so many new things in today's lecture. We only learned some more details about word formation, especially derivation. Again I likes the structure of the slides and the tasks.

References

  • class homepage
 
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